AL AIN, 18th May, 2019 (WAM) — Data recorded by Emirates Park Zoo in collaboration with other zoos and aquariums worldwide has been featured on the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The article confirmed that critical information, such as fertility and survival rates, is missing from global data for more than 98 percent of known species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
It is a gap with far-reaching implications for conservationists seeking to decrease the impact of mass extinctions. Scientists working worldwide on behalf of IUCN Red List, IUCN Species Survival Commission, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES), TRAFFIC, Monitor, and others require more complete data to make informed decisions.
That changed when researchers added data from a previously untapped source, the Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS). Contributing data on their animals since 2017, Emirates Park Zoo records their animal data in ZIMS, which is curated by wildlife professionals working within zoos, aquariums, refuge, research, and education centers in 97 countries. It is maintained by Spe-cies360, a non-profit member-driven organization that facilitates information sharing among its nearly 1,200 institutional members and is the world’s largest set of wildlife data. Since then, they have added data on 806 birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals of 198 species, contributing to the understanding of those species’ life histories.
“It seems inconceivable. Yet scientists tasked with saving species often must power through with best-guess assumptions that we hope approximate reality,” said lead researcher and Species360 Conservation Science Alliance, Director Dalia A. Conde.
A team led by Species360 Conservation Science Alliance, with participants from 19 institutions, believes we can substantially increase what we know by applying new analytics to data that has been long overlooked – using data contributed by Emirates Park Zoo and other zoos and aquariums around the world. “Providing that missing data – filling in those gaps – is game-changing for these species,” adds Waleed Shaaban, DVM, the General Manager of Emirates Park Zoo.
Predicting when species are at risk, and how best to strengthen populations, requires knowing at what age females reproduce, how many hatchlings or juveniles survive to adolescence, and how long adults live. To understand what data are currently available, and to measure the void, researchers developed a Species Knowledge Index (SKI) that classifies available demographic information for 32,144 known species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians.
“The demographic knowledge of species index provides significant information that, in conjunction with genetic data, allows estimations of events that affect population viability. Severe population declines, sometimes called genetic bottlenecks, influence the sustainability of populations, as we have found in studying endangered rhinos,” said Oliver Ryder, Ph.D., Director of Genetics, San Diego Zoo Global.
“Adding ZIMS was like turning on the lights in an otherwise very dim room,” said Conde. “Class by class, from mammals through amphibians, we saw large gaps fill with fundamental data needed to help conservationists assess populations and advocate for threatened, endangered, and vulnerable species.”
Incorporating ZIMS boosted the Species Knowledge Index eightfold for comprehensive life table in-formation used to assess populations. Information on the age of first reproduction for females, a key piece to estimating how a population will fair in coming years, grew as much as 73 percent.
The study, “Data gaps and opportunities for comparative and conservation biology,” suggests a value far beyond the data itself. As Conservation Science Alliance and other researchers apply analytics to data aggregated across global sources, including ZIMS, they gather insights that impact outcomes for species in danger of extinction. Moreover, this can provide an understanding for comparative and evolutionary biology.